Abdus Salam: ‘First Muslim Nobel Laureate’
Salam was a theoretical physicist who became the first Pakistani and the first
Muslim to be awarded the Nobel Prize in the sciences, but whilst he was
accepted by the world, he was disowned by his own country. Jon Crabb examines
Salam’s life and the achievements of this influential man.
in a poor farming district, Salam overcame a humble start in life to become an
internationally recognised scientist. In addition to his academic career, he
campaigned for the promotion of scientific research in developing countries and
was passionate about providing opportunities for gifted students from poor
nations. Despite his many achievements, Salam has remained a controversial
figure in Pakistan for being part of the Ahmaddya Muslim community, a small
sect regarded as heretical by the wider Islamic society.
Before the partition of British-India and the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the Ahmadiyya were an obscure sect in a predominantly Hindu nation, and mostly left alone. After the partition, which placed Salam’s village in Muslim Pakistan, they were declared heretics by orthodox Muslims and became outcasts. In a cruel twist of fate, the Ahmaddis who now found themselves in Pakistan, or who migrated across the borders to join the new Muslim state were eventually worse off than before. Purely because of his religious heritage, Abdus Salam never found acceptance in his home country during his lifetime.
So much has been said about
the precociousness of the young Abdus Salam that certain tales have taken on
the aura of a myth. Regardless of the veracity of some of these stories, he was
clearly a child prodigy whose keen intellect amazed his schoolteachers. When he
sat for matriculation at Punjab University, he received the highest marks ever
recorded, despite being only 14. He received a scholarship to study at
Cambridge University in 1949 when he was 20 and in 1950 he received the
Smith’s Prize for the most outstanding pre-doctoral contribution to physics. By
the time his thesis on Quantum Electrodynamics was published in 1951 he had
already achieved some fame in the physics world and was keen to use his growing
reputation to improve and promote education and research in his home country.
To that end he accepted teaching positions in Pakistan where he immediately tried
to update the courses. To his dismay he found his ideas suppressed and new
research discouraged. Disappointed, he returned to the UK where he continued to
publish important papers.
In the 1960s, Salam moved
to Pakistan once again when he was offered work by the government. He became
closely involved with a number of projects, and led several important
scientific bodies including the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, the Pakistan
Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission, and the Pakistan Institute of
Nuclear Science and Technology. In this time, he also worked hard to establish
centres of research throughout the country, and in 1964 he set up the
International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy – an institute
where the brightest minds of physics from both developed and developing
countries could meet and work together.
Watch CNN’s short report of Abdus Salam below:
After this highly
productive period in which Salam made major contributions in science and
philanthropy throughout Pakistan, he became the victim of religious intolerance
in 1974 when the Ahmadiyya sect was declared non-Muslim by an increasingly
deeply religious man Salam resigned from his post as Chief Scientific advisor
in protest at his sect’s excommunication from Islam. He remained in Pakistan
for another five years, but facing mounting prejudice he left for Europe in
1979; it was the same year that he shared the Nobel Prize with two American
physicists for his work on unifying the fundamental forces. When Abdus Salam accepted his Nobel Prize he wore traditional dress including a
turban and gold pointed shoes, which starkly contrasted the black suits and
white ties of the other Laureates. It was a carefully measured statement that
aligned him as much with his Pakistani roots as with his international stature.
In his acceptance speech, he proudly related the contributions the Islamic
world had made to science and quoted the Qur’an.
he maintained his love for his religion and for his country, he was effectively
written out of its history by the prevailing government. When he was initially
invited to speak in Islamabad after receiving the Nobel Prize, an extremist
student group protested until the invitation was withdrawn. Rumours of Salam
selling nuclear secrets were spread through the newspapers. Despite being the
father of Pakistan’s Space and Nuclear programs, his name appears in few
textbooks and is rarely mentioned on Pakistani television and radio. While
there is a road named after him at CERN in Geneva, he is mostly unacknowledged
in his own country after decades of media blackout. After his death in Oxford
in 1996, his body was returned to Pakistan and buried under a gravestone that
read ‘First Muslim Nobel Laureate’. Even in death he suffered
persecution; a local magistrate ordered ‘Muslim’ to be erased, leaving the
nonsensical ‘First _____ Nobel Laureate.’ In 1998, Pakistan’s government
released a stamp featuring Abdus Salam as a part of a series commemorating
Pakistani Scientists. However, the stamp was withdrawn from circulation after
pressure from orthodox Muslims.
Pakistan today, perhaps as the result of a more curious younger generation
there is a growing acceptance of Abdus Salam and he has been the subject of a
number of editorials detailing his mistreatment. His international status,
combined with a sense of unease at the rise of religious extremism has made
more progressive Pakistanis reassess the life and achievements of their most
famous scientist. In November 2011, an article in Dawn, Pakistan’s
oldest English language newspaper, attracted over 200 sympathetic and
supportive comments. Also in 2011 a film about Salam called The Dream of Symmetry
was also released, casting fresh light on this extraordinary figure to
audiences in Pakistan and around the world.
Watch a short trailer about The Dream of Symmetry below:
By Jon Crabbs